## Operating Cash Flow Sales Volume And Breakeven

Accounting break-even is one tool that is useful for project analysis. Ultimately, however, we are more interested in cash flow than accounting income. So, for example, if sales volume is the critical variable, then we need to know more about the relationship between sales volume and cash flow than just the accounting break-even.

Our goal in this section is to illustrate the relationship between operating cash flow and sales volume. We also discuss some other break-even measures. To simplify matters somewhat, we will ignore the effect of taxes. We start off by looking at the relationship between accounting break-even and cash flow.

Now that we know how to find the accounting break-even, it is natural to wonder what happens with cash flow. To illustrate, suppose the Wettway Sailboat Corporation is considering whether or not to launch its new Margo-class sailboat. The selling price will be \$40,000 per boat. The variable costs will be about half that, or \$20,000 per boat, and fixed costs will be \$500,000 per year.

The Base Case The total investment needed to undertake the project is \$3,500,000. This amount will be depreciated straight-line to zero over the five-year life of the equipment. The salvage value is zero, and there are no working capital consequences. Wettway has a 20 percent required return on new projects.

Based on market surveys and historical experience, Wettway projects total sales for the five years at 425 boats, or about 85 boats per year. Ignoring taxes, should this project be launched?

To begin, ignoring taxes, the operating cash flow at 85 boats per year is: Operating cash flow = EBIT + Depreciation - Taxes

At 20 percent, the five-year annuity factor is 2.9906, so the NPV is:

NPV = -\$3,500,000 + 1,200,000 X 2.9906 = -\$3,500,000 + 3,588,720 = \$88,720

In the absence of additional information, the project should be launched.

Calculating the Break-Even Level To begin looking a little closer at this project, you might ask a series of questions. For example, how many new boats does Wettway need to sell for the project to break even on an accounting basis? If Wettway does break even, what will be the annual cash flow from the project? What will be the return on the investment in this case?

Before fixed costs and depreciation are considered, Wettway generates \$40,000 -20,000 = \$20,000 per boat (this is revenue less variable cost). Depreciation is \$3,500,000/5 = \$700,000 per year. Fixed costs and depreciation together total \$1.2 million, so Wettway needs to sell (FC + D)/(P - v) = \$1.2 million/20,000 = 60 boats

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