3. Forwards and Futures What is the difference between a forward contract and a futures contract? Why do you think that futures contracts are much more common? Are there any circumstances under which you might prefer to use forwards instead of futures? Explain.

4. Hedging Commodities Bubbling Crude Corporation, a large Texas oil producer, would like to hedge against adverse movements in the price of oil, since this is the firm's primary source of revenue. What should the firm do? Provide at least two reasons why it probably will not be possible to achieve a completely flat risk profile with respect to oil prices.

5. Sources of Risk A company produces an energy intensive product and uses natural gas as the energy source. The competition primarily uses oil. Explain why this company is exposed to fluctuations in both oil and natural gas prices.

6. Hedging Commodities If a textile manufacturer wanted to hedge against adverse movements in cotton prices, it could buy cotton futures contracts or buy call options on cotton futures contracts. What would be the pros and cons of the two approaches?

7. Options Explain why a put option on a bond is conceptually the same as a call option on interest rates.

8. Hedging Interest Rates A company has a large bond issue maturing in one year. When it matures, the company will float a new issue. Current interest rates are attractive, and the company is concerned that rates next year will be higher. What are some hedging strategies that the company might use in this case?

9. Swaps Explain why a swap is effectively a series of forward contracts. Suppose a firm enters into a swap agreement with a swap dealer. Describe the nature of the default risk faced by both parties.

10. Swaps Suppose a firm enters into a fixed-for-floating interest rate swap with a swap dealer. Describe the cash flows that will occur as a result of the swap.

11. Transaction versus Economic Exposure What is the difference between transactions and economic exposure? Which can be hedged more easily? Why?

12. Hedging Exchange Rate Risk Refer to Table 23.1 in the text to answer this question. If a U.S. company exports its goods to Japan, how would it use a futures contract on Japanese yen to hedge its exchange rate risk? Would it buy or sell yen futures? In answering, pay attention to how the exchange rate is quoted in the futures contract.

13. Hedging Strategies For the following scenarios, describe a hedging strategy using futures contracts that might be considered. If you think that a cross-hedge would be appropriate, discuss the reasons for your choice of contract.

a. A public utility is concerned about rising costs.

b. A candy manufacturer is concerned about rising costs.

c. A corn farmer fears that this year's harvest will be at record high levels across the country.

d. A manufacturer of photographic film is concerned about rising costs. A natural gas producer believes there will be excess supply in the market this year.

A bank derives all its income from long-term, fixed-rate residential mortgages. A stock mutual fund invests in large, blue-chip stocks and is concerned about a decline in the stock market.

A U.S. importer of Swiss army knives will pay for its order in six months in Swiss francs.

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