## Bond Values and Yields

As time passes, interest rates change in the marketplace. The cash flows from a bond, however, stay the same. As a result, the value of the bond will fluctuate. When interest rates rise, the present value of the bond's remaining cash flows declines, and the bond is worth less. When interest rates fall, the bond is worth more.

To determine the value of a bond at a particular point in time, we need to know the number of periods remaining until maturity, the face value, the coupon, and the market interest rate for bonds with similar features. This interest rate required in the market on a bond is called the bond's yield to maturity (YTM). This rate is sometimes called the bond's yield for short. Given all this information, we can calculate the present value of the cash flows as an estimate of the bond's current market value.

For example, suppose the Xanth (pronounced "zanth") Co. were to issue a bond with 10 years to maturity. The Xanth bond has an annual coupon of \$80. Similar bonds have a yield to maturity of 8 percent. Based on our preceding discussion, the Xanth bond will pay \$80 per year for the next 10 years in coupon interest. In 10 years, Xanth will pay \$1,000 to the owner of the bond. The cash flows from the bond are shown in Figure 7.1. What would this bond sell for?

As illustrated in Figure 7.1, the Xanth bond's cash flows have an annuity component (the coupons) and a lump sum (the face value paid at maturity). We thus estimate the market value of the bond by calculating the present value of these two components

Ross et al.: Fundamentals I III. Valuation of Future I 7. Interest Rates and Bond I I © The McGraw-Hill of Corporate Finance, Sixth Cash Flows Valuation Companies, 2002

Edition, Alternate Edition

CHAPTER 7 Interest Rates and Bond Valuation 203

Cash Flows for Xanth Co. Bond

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