Multi Period Analysis of Private Equity Returns

We discussed above that the returns to private equity investing may suffer from stale or managed pricing. This means that examining private equity returns based on contemporaneous market returns may not fully reveal the extent to which private equity returns depend upon the returns to the broad stock or bond market. Therefore, the simple one period regression models we performed above may not provide accurate estimates of the systematic risk of private equity returns (as measured by P) or the...

Profiting from an Arbitrage CDO Trust

We have mentioned several times that the motivation for an arbitrage CDO trust is to earn a profit. We provide an example of how this is done. Assume a money manager establishes an arbitrage CBO to invest in high-yield bonds. The trust will have a life of three years and raises 900 million by selling three tranches of securities. The security tranches issued by the trust are divided by credit rating. In tranche A, debt with the highest priority is issued against the highest credit quality bonds...

Distressed Debt Arbitrage

If there is any way to skin an arbitrage, hedge fund managers will think of it. While this is not a private equity form of investing, it is a form of equity arbitrage best suited for hedge fund managers. The arbitrage is constructed as follows. A hedge fund manager purchases distressed debt which she believes is undervalued. At the same time, she shorts the company's underlying stock. The idea is that if the bonds are going to decline in value, the company's stock price will decline even more...

LBOs that Improve Operating Efficiency

A company may be bought out because it is shackled with a non-competitive operating structure. For large public companies with widespread equity ownership, the separation of ownership and management can create agency problems with ineffective control mechanisms. Management may have little incentive to create value because it has a small stake in the company, and monitoring of management's actions by a diverse shareholder base is likely to be just as minimal. Under these circumstances,...

Exhibit 14 CBO Trust Annual Cash Flows

Income from high-yield bonds, 9 on 800 million Income from Treasury note, 6 on 100 million Income from Cash Reserve, 5 on 48.5 million Coupon on Tranche A, 7.5 on 100 million Coupon on Tranche B, 8.25 on 600 million Coupon on Tranche C, 8.75 on 200 million Annual management fee S7,500,000 49,500,000 17,500,000 4,500,000 9 See David Graubard, CDO Roundup GMAC is Testing the Waters with CMBS-Backed Deal, Asset Securitization Report (February 19, 2001). This is a balance sheet CDO. The G-Force CDO...

The Growth of Interval Funds

Since their introduction in 1992 with the promulgation of Rule 23c-3, interval funds have grown increasingly popular. They have grown from one fund in 1992 to 33 funds by the end of 1999. In 1999, 16 new interval funds were introduced. Assets under management have grown from 4 billion in 1992 to 28 billion in 1999.15 The popularity of interval funds stems from several factors. First, from an investor viewpoint, retail investors (moms and pops) can invest in interval funds with the assurance of...

Specialization within the Venture Capital Industry

Like any industry that grows and matures, expansion and maturity lead to specialization. The trend towards specialization in the venture capital industry exists on several levels, by industry, geography, stage of financing, and special situations. Specialization is the natural by-product of two factors. First, the enormous amount of capital flowing into venture capital funds has encouraged venture capitalists to distinguish themselves from other funds by narrowing their investment focus....

Open End and Closed End Mutual Funds

The retail mutual fund industry is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the Company Act). Under the Company Act, mutual funds are referred to as investment companies and are classified into two broad groups open-end companies and closed-end companies. Both types of companies offer their shares to retail investors through a public offering that must be registered with the SEC. However, there are numerous differences. An open-end...

Introduction to Hedge Funds

The term hedge fund is a term of art. It is not defined in the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Additionally, hedge fund is not defined by the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the Commodity Exchange Act, or, finally, the Bank Holding Company Act. So what is this investment vehicle that every investor seems to know about but for which there is scant regulatory guidance As a starting point, we turn to the American Heritage...

Business Plans

The most important document upon which a venture capitalist will base her decision to invest in a start-up company is the business plan. The business plan must be comprehensive, coherent, and internally consistent. It must clearly state the business strategy, identify the niche that the new company will fill, and describe the resources needed to fill that niche. The business plan also reflects the start-up management team's ability to develop and present an intelligent and strategic plan of...

The Empirical Evidence Supporting Commodity Futures As An Asset Class

While commodities within an investment portfolio are considered to be a new phenomenon, the fact is that organized commodity trading has been in existence far longer than stock and bond trading. The first commodity exchange was the Osaka rice exchange that began trading in Japan in the 1400s. By contrast, the New York Stock Exchange did not begin trading until the early 1800s. Nonetheless, commodity futures investing is relatively new compared to stock and bond investing. In his seminal paper...

Using Distressed Debt for a Takeover

As a good example of how a corporation can use distressed debt to take control of another company, consider the merger of Federated Department Stores and R.H. Macy amp Co. Federated was able to gain control of Macy's with an initial investment in distressed debt of only 109 million. Federated itself was a victim of the leveraged fallouts of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Federated was taken private in an LBO by Robert Campeau in 1988, the same gentleman that took Allied Department Stores...

Agency Costs and Firm Management

The objectives of senior management may be very different from that of a corporation's equity owners. For instance, management may be concerned with keeping their jobs, and presiding over a large empire. Conversely, shareholders want value creation. As we previously noted, in a large company, equity ownership may be so widely dispersed that the owners of the company cannot make their objectives known to management, or even control management's natural tendencies. This raises the issue of agency...

The Growth of the Distressed Debt Market

Exhibit 4 presents the face value of all distressed portfolios over the time period of 1990-1999. As can be seen, the distressed market has nearly doubled between 1998 and 1999. Several factors influenced this growth. First, many more types of commercial loans are available for resale. In addition to the traditional industrial loans that are routinely bought and sold, there are many new types of charge off loan portfolios that include auto deficiencies credit card paper medical and healthcare...

History Of Managed Futures

Organized futures trading began in the United States in the 1800s with the founding of the Chicago Board of Trade CBOT in 1848. It was founded by 82 grain merchants and the first exchange floor was above a flour store. Originally, it was a cash market where grain traders came to buy and sell supplies of flour, timothy seed, and hay. In 1851, the earliest futures contract in the United States was recorded for the forward delivery of 3,000 bushels of corn, and two years later, the CBOT...

Hedge Funds that Exhibit Credit Risk

The second general category of hedge funds lines up along the credit risk axis in Exhibit 2. We have merger arbitrage at the bottom of the credit risk axis and relative value arbitrage at the top end of the credit risk axis. 6-W 4.001 3.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 300 3.00 4.00 5,00 6.00 TOO BOO 6-W 4.001 3.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 300 3.00 4.00 5,00 6.00 TOO BOO The investment strategies of these funds involve taking only a little market exposure hence their label as arbitrage funds. However, these hedge funds...

The History Of Lbos

Although LBOs began after the Second World War, it was not until the 1970s that the investment value of LBOs became apparent. In 1976 a new investment firm was created on Wall Street, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts amp Co. KKR .1 The founders of KKR had previously worked at Bear Stearns and Company, and they helped to pioneer the LBO transaction as early as 1968. No firm has had a greater impact on the leveraged buyout market than KKR. Indeed, many of the transactions discussed in this chapter were...

Mezzanine Financing to Bridge a Gap in Time

Mezzanine financing has three general purposes. First, it can be financing used to bridge a gap in time. This might be a round of financing to get a private company 1 See Still Looking Flush with Cash, Buyout Firms Hope for a Deal Rebound, The Investment Dealer's Digest April 9, 2001 . to the IPO stage. In this case, mezzanine financing can either be subordinated debt convertible into equity, or preferred shares, convertible into common equity upon the completion of a successful IPO. Examples...

Merchant Banking

As a final discussion we take a moment to briefly describe merchant banking. Merchant banking is a first cousin of leveraged buyouts. Sometimes, it is difficult to distinguish between the two. Merchant banking is the practice of buying non-financial companies by financial institutions. Most investment banking companies and large money-center banks have merchant banking units. These units buy and sell non-financial companies for the profits that they can generate for the shareholders of the...

The Overstuffed Corporation

One of the mainstream targets of many LBO firms are conglomerates. Conglomerate corporations consist of many different operating divisions or subsidiaries, often in completely different industries. Wall Street analysts are often reluctant to follow or cover conglomerates because they do not fit neatly into any one industrial category. As a result, these companies can be misunderstood by the investing public, and therefore, undervalued. Consider the following case history. In yet another KKR...

Data Risk

Much of the desire to invest in hedge funds stems from the academic research regarding the performance of this asset class. The empirical studies with respect 7 In fact, the individual VAR calculations would be additive only if the returns to each hedge fund were perfectly correlated. to hedge funds demonstrate convincingly that hedge funds are a valuable addition to a diversified portfolio. In summary, these studies demonstrate that an allocation to hedge funds can increase the overall return...

The Initial Sale of Securities

Section 5 a of the 1933 Act states Unless a registration statement is in effect as to a security, it shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly 1 To make use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication in interstate commerce or of the mails to sell such security through the use or medium of any prospectus or otherwise or 2 To carry or cause to be carried through the mails or in inter state commerce, by any means or instruments of transportation, any security for...

Performance Measurement Risk

The Sharpe ratio is the statistic most often used to compare the performance of two investment managers. It is a measure of risk-adjusted returns. It divides the performance of an investment manager in excess of the risk-free rate by the standard deviation of that manager's performance results. Its purpose is to provide a basis to compare the performance of different managers that may invest in different financial assets. However, there are some practical difficulties with using a Sharpe ratio...

Regulation D

Securities Act 1933

Under the 1933 Act, Congress has provided issuers with ready-made safe harbors from the registration requirements. The most often-used are The Rules Governing the Limited Offer and Sale of Securities Without Registration under the Securities Act of 1933. These rules are universally known as Regulation D. Under Regulation D, a hedge fund must file a Notice of Sale with the SEC within 15 days of the first sale made of hedge fund units. Additionally, there are two important rules that must be...

Chase Physical Commodity Index

The Chase Physical Commodity Index CPCI was created in 1993. It is a total return commodity index that measures the reinvested daily returns of a portfolio of commodity futures and the daily interest associated with fully collateralized futures investments. The index contains 19 different commodity futures contracts representing five major commodity groups grains wheat, corn, soybeans, soybean meal, and soybean oil , metals gold, silver, and copper , energy crude oil, heating oil, unleaded...

Outside Service Providers

The investor must document who is the hedge fund manager's outside auditors, prime broker, and legal counsel. Each of these service providers must be contacted. First, the investor should receive the hedge fund manager's last annual audited financial statement as well as the most current statement. Any questions regarding the financial statements should be directed to the CFO and the outside auditors. Any opinion from the auditors other than an unqualified opinion must be explained by the...

MLM Index

Mount Lucas Management introduced the MLM Index MLMI in 1988.23 It was the first passive index of returns to futures investing. The MLMI differs significantly from the previous futures indices in three ways. First, the MLMI is designed to be a trend following index. The MLMI uses a 12-month look back window for calculating the moving average unit asset value for each futures market in which it invests. Once a month, on the day prior to the last trading day, the algorithm examines the current...

The Investment Company Act Of 1940

Investment Company Act 1940

The Investment Company Act of 1940 the Company Act was designed to regulate investment pools. Today, this act primarily regulates the mutual fund industry. Mutual funds are investment companies for purposes of the Company Act and the SEC. Under Section 3 a of the Company Act, an investment company Means any issuer which is or holds itself out as being engaged primarily, or proposes to engage primarily, in the business of investing, reinvesting, or trading in securities. While this definition...

General Classification For Hedge Funds

Recall that in Chapter 4 we provided a graphical comparison between hedge funds and traditional long-only managers. Long-only managers typically invest in either the equity or bond market, but do not leverage their investment bets. Therefore, their investment programs have considerable market risk exposure, but very little leverage or credit risk exposure. We present again Exhibit 1 where we plot market risk versus credit risk for several styles of long-only managers. Again, we use a relative...

Economics Of The Commodity Markets Normal Backwardation Versus Contango

With this pricing framework in place, we turn to the economics of commodity consumption, production, and hedging. Commodity futures contracts exhibit a term structure similar to that of interest rates. This curve can be downward sloping or upward sloping. The reasons for the different curves will be determined by the actions of hedgers and speculators. Consider a petroleum producer such as ExxonMobil. Through its exploration, developing, refining, and marketing operations, this company is...

The Commodity Exchange

Functions Commodity Exchange

The Commodity Exchange Act the CEA was promulgated by Congress in 1974. The CEA accomplished two major goals. First, it established the Commodity Futures Trading Commission as the regulatory authority for the futures industry including the futures exchanges. Second, it established disclosure, record keeping, and reporting rules for commodity pool operators CPOs , commodity trading advisors CTAs , futures commission merchants FCMs , and introducing brokers. It is the rules that regulate CPOs...

Merger Arbitrage

Merger arbitrage is perhaps the best-known arbitrage among investors and hedge fund managers. Merger arbitrage generally entails buying the stock of the firm that is to be acquired and selling the stock of the firm that is the acquirer. Merger arbitrage managers seek to capture the price spread between the current market prices of the merger partners and the value of those companies upon the successful completion of the merger. The stock of the target company will usually trade at a discount to...

Should Hedge Funds Be Part Of An Investment Program

Before considering hedged funds as part of a strategic investment program, we must first ask the question Are they worth it Initially, we must consider the return potential of hedge funds. Second, we must determine whether hedge funds have a place within a diversified portfolio that includes stocks and bonds. Goldman, Sachs amp Co. and Financial Risk Management Ltd. in two reports study the returns to hedge funds over two time periods, 1993-1997 and 1994-1998.2 Over the first time period, they...

Due Diligence Checklist

Chief Executive Officer_ Chief Operating Officer_ Chief Investment Officer Chief Financial Officer__ Head of Trading_ Attach biographies of key principals include education, work experience, and professional degrees this may be taken from the offering memorandum . Regulatory Registrations please check If any of the above were checked, please indicate the regulatory authority with whom the hedge fund manager is registered, and the date of the registration. Hedge Fund Style e.g., Market Neutral,...

Is Hedge Fund Performance Persistent

This is the age-old question with respect to all asset managers, not just hedge funds Can the manager repeat her good performance This issue, though, is par 13 See Brown, Goetzmann, and Ibbotson, Offshore Hedge Funds Survival and Performance, 1989-1995, and Schneeweis and Spurgin, Multifactor Analysis of Hedge Fund, Managed Futures, and Mutual Fund Return and Risk Characteristics. 14 See Goldman, Sachs amp Co. and Financial Risk Management Ltd., The Hedge Fund Industry and Absolute Return Funds...

Relative Value Arbitrage

Relative Value Arbitrage

Relative value arbitrage might be better named the smorgasbord of arbitrage. This is because relative value hedge fund managers are catholic in their investment strategies they invest across the universe of arbitrage strategies. The best known of these managers was Long Term Capital Management LTCM . Once the story of LTCM unfolded, it was clear that their trading strategies involved merger arbitrage, fixed income arbitrage, volatility arbitrage, stub trading, and convertible arbitrage. In...

Fixed Income Arbitrage

Fixed Income Arbitrage Example

Fixed income arbitrage involves purchasing one fixed income security and simultaneously selling a similar fixed income security. The sale of the second security is done to hedge the underlying market risk contained in the first security. Typi 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 cally, the two securities are related either mathematically or economically such that they move similarly with respect to market developments. Generally, the difference in pricing between the two...

Convertible Bond Arbitrage

Convertible Bond Arbitrage

Hedge fund managers tend to use the term arbitrage somewhat loosely. Arbitrage is defined simply as riskless profits. It is the purchase of a security for cash at one price and the immediate resale for cash of the same security at a higher price. Alternatively, it may be defined as the simultaneous purchase of security A for cash at one price and the selling of identical security B for cash at a higher price. In both cases, the arbitrageur has no risk. There is no market risk because the...

Strategic versus Tactical Allocations

Alternative assets should be used in a tactical rather than strategic allocation. Strategic allocation of resources is applied to fundamental asset classes such as 7 See Harry Markowitz, Portfolio Selection New Haven, CT Cowles Foundation, Yale University Press, 1959 . 8 See Jeffery Horvitz, Asset Classes and Asset Allocation Problems of Classification, The Journal of Private Portfolio Management Spring 2000 . equity, fixed income, cash, and real estate. These are the basic asset classes that...