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Nontariff barriers: the new enemies of trade

1 Import quotas

2 Voluntary export restraints

3 Antidumping laws

4 Exchange rate controls

5 Countervailing duties

6 Government subsidies

7 Licensing, labeling, and packaging restrictions

8 Quality controls and technical standards

9 Domestic-content laws

10 Political rhetoric

11 Embargoes and sanctions

12 Most/least-favored nation status

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