Corporate Bond Markets and the use of debt

Companies in Europe and emerging markets have historically depended upon bank debt to borrow and have had limited access to corporate bond markets. In recent years, their access to corporate bond markets, both domestically and internationally, has increased. As a result, which of the following would you expect to happen to debt ratios in these countries?

□ Bonds & Commercial paper

United States Japan Germany a. Debt ratios should go up b. Debt ratios should go down c. Debt ratios should not change much

*mr finUS.xls: There is a dataset on the web that has aggregate internal and external financing, for US firms, from 1975 to 1998.

Retirement Planning For The Golden Years

Retirement Planning For The Golden Years

If mutual funds seem boring to you, there are other higher risk investment opportunities in the form of stocks. I seriously recommend studying the market carefully and completely before making the leap into stock trading but this can be quite the short-term quick profit rush that you are looking for if you am willing to risk your retirement investment for the sake of increasing your net worth. If you do choose to invest in the stock market please take the time to learn the proper procedures, the risks, and the process before diving in. If you have a financial planner and you definitely should then he or she may prove to be an exceptional resource when it comes to the practice of 'playing' the stock market.

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